DNV-GL has recently concluded an exhaustive study of battery safety and summarized the results of the study in a report titled Technical Reference for Li-ion Battery Explosion Risk and Fire Suppression. The project stemmed from a lithium-ion battery safety joint development initiative and included several players from the maritime industry, including ABB, Corvus, LeClanche, Kongsberg, and many others. While the program was put together with maritime industry partners, the learnings can be applied to the stationary energy storage market as well.
This report is intended to enable persons assessing energy storage installations, whether from a design, engineering, or regulatory perspective, to better evaluate risks, capabilities, and solutions with regard to safety. Project work was initiated and managed by DNV-GL as a joint development project – a collaborative effort from many essential partners representing the entire maritime battery value chain.
The study evaluated lithium-ion batteries with Nickel Manganese Cobalt (NMC) and Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP) cathode chemistries from various manufacturers. The main conclusions involved:
- Fire suppression solutions
- Heat and gas generation
- Off-gas detection
The Li-ion Tamer sensor indicates only seconds after off-gassing occurs. In addition, testing was performed where a cell was being overcharged and charging stopped when off-gas was released as indicated by the Li-ion Tamer. The cell temperatures ceased to increase, and off-gassing started to decline until the cell was considered stable. Thus, demonstrating it is feasible to ‘pull back’ a cell after it has begun off-gassing but before thermal runaway occurs.
- DNV-GL, Technical Reference for Li-ion Battery Explosion Risk and Fire Suppression